The following Excel macro will pull the data from all content controls in all Word files in a specified folder into the active worksheet. To run it, simply press Alt-F8 and choose the 'GetFormData' macro. You'll be asked to navigate to the source folder. Once you've done that, the macro will populate the worksheet. If you want, you could create a keyboard shortcut or a button to trigger the macro.
If you initially put just one document containing meaningful data in all of the content controls into the 'source' folder, the macro will go through through the content controls and output the data into the worksheet. you should then be able to marry-up the output with whatever column headings you'll want in the workbook.
Application.ScreenUpdating = False
Dim wdApp As New Word.Application
Dim wdDoc As Word.Document
Dim CCtrl As Word.ContentControl
Dim strFolder As String, strFile As String
Dim WkSht As Worksheet, i As Long, j As Long
strFolder = GetFolder
If strFolder = "" Then Exit Sub
Set WkSht = ActiveSheet
i = WkSht.Cells(WkSht.Rows.Count, 1).End(xlUp).Row
strFile = Dir(strFolder & "\*.docx", vbNormal)
While strFile <> ""
i = i + 1
Set wdDoc = wdApp.Documents.Open(Filename:=strFolder & "\" & strFile, AddToRecentFiles:=False, Visible:=False)
j = 0
For Each CCtrl In .ContentControls
j = j + 1
WkSht.Cells(i, j) = CCtrl.Range.Text
strFile = Dir()
Set wdDoc = Nothing: Set wdApp = Nothing: Set WkSht = Nothing
Application.ScreenUpdating = True
Function GetFolder() As String
Dim oFolder As Object
GetFolder = ""
Set oFolder = CreateObject("Shell.Application").BrowseForFolder(0, "Choose a folder", 0)
If (Not oFolder Is Nothing) Then GetFolder = oFolder.Items.Item.Path
Set oFolder = Nothing
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